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Characteristics that Predict Phishing Susceptibility: A Review
DescriptionPhishing attack countermeasures have previously relied on technical solutions or user training. As phishing attacks continue to impact users resulting in adverse consequences, mitigation efforts may be strengthened through an understanding of how user characteristics predict phishing susceptibility. Several studies have identified factors of interest that may contribute to susceptibility. Others have begun to build predictive models to better understand the relationships among factors in addition to their prediction power, although these studies have only used a handful of predictors. As a step toward creating a holistic model to predict phishing susceptibility, it was first necessary to catalog all known predictors that have been identified in the literature. We identified 32 predictors related to personality traits, demographics, educational background, cybersecurity experience and beliefs, platform experience, email behaviors, and work commitment style.